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Early scientific career
  1. original contributions to the american pioneer Manual
  2. Trails across Wyoming: The Oregon, Mormon Pioneer and California Routes
  3. Early life and education

Thereafter, Woods was often known as "Black Edison. After receiving the patent for the multiplex telegraph, Woods reorganized his Cincinnati company as the Woods Electric Co. In , he moved his own research operations to New York City, where he was joined by a brother, Lyates Woods, who also had several inventions of his own. Woods's next most important invention was the power pick-up device in , which is the basis of the so-called "third rail" currently used by electric-powered transit systems. From to , he received patents for an improved air-brake system.

Woods had invented 15 appliances for electric railways. We strive for accuracy and fairness. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Sign up for the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Philo T. Farnsworth was an American inventor best known as a pioneer of television technology.

Educator Booker T. Washington was one of the foremost African-American leaders of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, founding the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, now known as Tuskegee University.

original contributions to the american pioneer Manual

Elijah McCoy was a 19th century African-American inventor best known for inventing lubrication devices used to make train travel more efficient. Lewis Howard Latimer was an inventor and draftsman best known for his contributions to the patenting of the light bulb and the telephone. Grant Wood was an American painter who is best known for the iconic work 'American Gothic. Garrett Morgan blazed a trail for African-American inventors with his patents, including those for a hair-straightening product, a breathing device, a revamped sewing machine and an improved traffic signal.

George Westinghouse is best known for inventing an air brake system that made railroads safer and promoting alternating current technology, which revolutionized the world's light and power industries. George Washington Carver was an African American scientist and educator.

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John Dalton based his partial pressures theory on the idea that only like atoms repel one another, whereas unlike atoms appear to react indifferently. This notion was erroneous, but it helped to explain why each gas in a mixture behaved independently, serving the purpose of showing that atoms of all kinds are not alike.

John Dalton developed a crude method for measuring the masses of the elements in a compound. His law of multiple proportions states that when two elements form more than one compound, masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other are in a ratio of small whole numbers. John Dalton posited, against contemporary opinion of the time, that the atmosphere was a physical mixture of approximately 80 percent nitrogen and 20 percent oxygen rather than a specific compound of elements.

Dalton was born into a Quaker family of tradesmen; his grandfather Jonathan Dalton was a shoemaker, and his father, Joseph, was a weaver. Joseph married Deborah Greenup in , herself from a prosperous local Quaker family. Dalton was the youngest of their three offspring who survived to adulthood. Two years later the brothers purchased a school in Kendal , where they taught approximately 60 students, some of them boarders. As a teacher Dalton drew upon the experiences of two important mentors: Elihu Robinson, a Quaker gentleman of some means and scientific tastes in Eaglesfield, and John Gough, a mathematical and classical scholar in Kendal.

Trails across Wyoming: The Oregon, Mormon Pioneer and California Routes

From these men John acquired the rudiments of mathematics, Greek, and Latin. Robinson and Gough were also amateur meteorologists in the Lake District, and from them Dalton gained practical knowledge in the construction and use of meteorologic instruments as well as instruction in keeping daily weather records.

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Dalton retained an avid interest in meteorologic measurement for the rest of his life. In Dalton moved to Manchester to teach mathematics at a dissenting academy, the New College.

Early life and education

He took with him the proof sheets of his first book, a collection of essays on meteorologic topics based on his own observations together with those of his friends John Gough and Peter Crosthwaite. This work, Meteorological Observations and Essays , was published in He upheld the view, against contemporary opinion, that the atmosphere was a physical mixture of approximately 80 percent nitrogen and 20 percent oxygen rather than being a specific compound of elements.

He measured the capacity of the air to absorb water vapour and the variation of its partial pressure with temperature.